Sars-Cov-2 coronavirus mutations lower immunity. Current omicron vaccinations and antibodies are partially successful. An antibody neutralizes all known viruses. This mouse-made antibody doesn’t attach to the coronavirus’ variable binding site. It connects to a specific site on the viral spike protein, preventing fusion and infection.
Sars-CoV-2 has changed substantially since its introduction in Wuhan, China, 2.5 years ago. A high mutation rate, infection and multiplication among 590 million people promote infectious and easily distributed viral types. Adapted variants have mutated such that previous antibodies can’t attach to their spike protein. Vaccinated and cured people are protected against Covid-19 infections, but not re-infection.
Scientists are always working for improved Sars-CoV-2 antibodies. Sai Luo of Harvard Medical School wins. Antibodies neutralize all Sars-CoV-2 mutations. GM mice with human immune cells created it. They modified the mouse genome so it produces human B cells that manufacture antibodies. Luo and his colleagues gave animals Wuhan strain Sars-CoV-2 spike protein or nanoparticles containing its binding site.
Through viral exposure, mice produced nine coronavirus antibodies. Scientists neutralized one monoclonal antibody from each line to test their effectiveness against different viruses. Effective SP1-77. “SP1-77 neutralized all known Sars-CoV-2 variants,” claim Luo and colleagues. SP1-77 doesn’t bind to the coronavirus receptor binding site. The antibody attaches to the ACE2 binding site, which coronavirus mutations seldom harm. This may explain the antibody’s broad coronavirus activity.
SP1-77 allows the virus to attach to the ACE2 receptor on the cell surface but hinders viral membrane fusion. Coronavirus binds but can’t penetrate human cells. No therapeutic or vaccine-generated antibody has begun where SP1-77 does, scientists say. If this antibody’s extensive and powerful activity against Sars-CoV-2 variants is confirmed in vivo, it might cure current and emerging strains.
Luo and his colleagues said SP1-non-traditional 77’s neutralizing mechanism might lead to new vaccination strategies. Animals must test the antibody.